Madagascar, an island located in the Indian Ocean, in South-East Africa. Part of the largest islands on the planet and ranked fourth, it contains an interesting and unique history.
Around the year 700 to 1500, the first inhabitants of Madagascar were the “Vazimba”, who were originally of Indonesian origin. Subsequently, ethnic groups and tribes appeared, multiplied and spread across the Big Island, whose “Merina” (ethnic center) and “Vezo” (ethnic Southwest) were the more powerful.
During the Feudal period (1500-1895), famous Kings and Queens succeeded to reign over the Malagasy Kingdom. King Andrianampoinimerina, famous for his unifying character, succeeded in unifying and bringing together several ethnic groups around the beginning of the 19th century. Then his descendant and successor, King Radama I (1810-1828), opened the country to European influences, even though they have already landed on the north coast of the island around 1500. This King brought civilization to Malagasy people, as the creation of the Malagasy alphabet, and the contribution of the Bible. These grandiose evolutions at the level of the Malagasy Kingdom were continued by the Queens: Ranavalona I (1828-1861), Ranavalona II (1868-1883) and Ranavalona III (1883-1897) which succeeded each other.
As early as 1895, the reign of Ranavalona III was gradually coming to its end as it was the year in which she signed the agreement about the “Franco-Malagasy Alliance”. This agreement led the country towards the “French Colonization”, that marked the period 1895-1960 and which was supported by the nationalist movements opposing this colonization. This demand for Malagasy independence continued until 1945 in parallel with the Second World War. Thanks to the patriotism of the leaders including Jean Ralaimongo (from VVS: Vy Vato Sakelika) with Joseph Raseta, Joseph Ravoahangy and Jaques Rabemananjara (from DMMR: Democratic Movement for the Malagasy Renovation), the Malagasy independence was proclaimed in 1960.
The first Malagasy Republic was thus established with its first President Filibert Tsiranana (1960-1972). But this regime was eventually dissolved by the student revolt of the University of Antananarivo. General Ramanantsoa (1972-1975), the chief of state, took power and tried to resolve the conflict but to no avail. From where he bequeathed his authority to Colonel Ratsimandrava, but he was assassinated just a week after his inauguration. Afterwards, a military conspiracy placed Captain Ratsiraka Didier (1975-1993) as Head of State. He set up the Second Democratical Republic. In the early 1990s, the political instability continued in the Malagasy lands because of another revolt, resulting in the establishment of a new regime, with President Zafy Albert. He thus presided over the Third Republic for two consecutive years (1993-1995). Despite all this, the country seems paralyzed, which results in the dismissal of President Zafy Albert by the HCC (High Constitutional Court). In 1996, Prime Minister Ratsirahonana must take the power. And by the presidential election organized in the same year, Didier Ratsiraka returns to power. After five years, after another presidential election and a political crisis that lasted a year, Marc Ravalomanana took power in 2002. In 2007, he was re-elected for his second term. But towards the end of 2008, another political crisis erupted in the country, which was led by Andry Rajoelina, the Mayor of the Capital at that time. This was considered as an “Overturn” and led to the resignation of Marc Ravalomanana. Andry Rajoelina became the President of the Transition until 2014. After the Presidential Election, Hery Rajaonarimampianina was elected President of the Fourth Republic. Five years later, Andry Rajoelina returned to power, so he is the Malagasy President from 2019.